Urban Airship Glossary
- Airship Push Identifier
- APIDs identify devices with transient registration IDs, such as Windows
devices. These identifiers are version 4 UUIDs,
and are 36 characters long, including dashes.
- All devices can be assigned an alias as an alternate method of
identifying the device. Good examples of aliases include a User ID from
another server or a hash of an email address. Aliases are not unique, so
one alias can map to all devices that a user owns; for instance, if one
user owns an iPhone and an iPad, the same alias can be assigned to both
of those devices. However, it should not apply to more than 10 devices,
and each device can have only one alias. Superseded by named users.
- Amazon Device Messaging
- Amazon Device Messaging (ADM)
is the transport method that Urban Airship employs for notifications to
- Apple Push Notification System
- APNS is Apple’s push notification infrastructure for iOS (and now Mac OS
X) devices, and is available for apps distributed through the App Store.
- application key
- The application key is the unique identifier for your application, and is
used to authenticate the application for API calls.
- application secret
- A secret used to authorize requests for low-security API calls. This secret is intended to be embedded inside a mobile application, and as such is limited it what it can do. See also master secret.
- APNS uses simple numbers for badge values; autobadge is an Urban Airship
feature to track badge numbers in our servers, so push calls can contain
instructions to increment the badge value (e.g., “+1”). See
- Automated Message
- Urban Airship product name for the set of rules and conditions which, when met, will trigger a push notification or rich message or both. It is useful to think of an Automated Message as an “order form” for messages that will occur only when the required conditions are met.
- One of the three main APNS push features, including alert and sound. The
badge is the number shown on the iOS icon, such as for unread messages.
- Baseline Opens
- App Opens that occur regularly, irrespective of push notifications being sent. Baseline Opens might also be considered “natural” or “organic” opens in that they are expected to occur even in the absence of push notifications. Baseline Opens are derived from historical open trends on an app-by-app basis, and are excluded from Push Influence attribution.
- A broadcast push uses the Urban Airship API to send to all opted-in
push users at once, across all platform for which your app is enabled.
A common use case for broadcast push is a breaking news story.
- A Channel or Channel ID is an identifier that is generated by the Urban Airship SDK and
provides a mapping to any installation of your application on a device. A Channel
is used in place of other push identifiers or push addresses, e.g., device tokens, so that you can reference an app installation regardless of whether a push
address is available. The Urban Airship Channel will remain the same even if the push address
changes, and thus is a reliable abstraction for identifying installations. These identifiers are
version 4 UUIDs,
and are 36 characters long, including dashes.
- Cloud to Device Messaging
- C2DM is a retired push notification transport system for Android devices. It has been deprecated by Google in favor of GCM since
- control group
- In Urban Airship’s A/B Tests, a control group is a specified percentage of the selected audience
that receives no message. As with traditional statistical hypothesis testing, the presence of a control group provides a baseline for comparison with the variants, which receive messages.
- Custom Event
- A Custom Event is a user action taken in-app (whether in an app location not powered by Urban Airship,
or on a rich page in a Message Center or Landing Page) that reports to Urban Airship an event name and value.
Custom Events must be defined in-app and are reported on at both the per-push and app levels. For more
information about setting up and tracking Custom Events, see
the Custom Event Topic Guide
- device token
- An identifier for the Apple Push Notification System for iOS devices.
Each application installation that has push available has a device token,
and device tokens are only valid for the appropriate APNS
environment – one for development, and one for production (ad hoc or
App Store builds). The tokens are 64 hexadecimal characters.
- Direct Attribution of Events
- An event is directly attributed to a push notification if a user opens an app from a push notification
and then completes the event in the same session.
- Direct Open
- An app open that occurs when a user interacts with a notification to open an app, e.g., taps a push notification in the notification center, lock screen, etc.
- Delivery expiration, also commonly referred to as TTL, as either absolute ISO UTC timestamp, or number of seconds from now. When
the delivery platform supports it, a value of zero (0) indicates that the message should be
delivered immediately and never stored for later attempts.
- Firebase Cloud Messaging
- Firebase Cloud Messaging (FCM) <https://firebase.google.com/docs/cloud-messaging/>_ is Google’s official push
notification transport system for Android apps, replacing :term:`GCM in 2016.
- A format for encoding a variety of geographic data structures. See
- Google Cloud Messaging
- Google Cloud Messaging (GCM) was Google’s second commercially available
notification transport system, supplanting the now-deprecated Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM). As of 2016,
GCM has been replaced by Firebase Cloud Messaging, the current Google-supported push notification service.
- Indirect Attribution of Events
- An event is indirectly attributed to a push notification if a user opens an app other than from
a push notification and then completes the event, within 12 hours of receiving the last push notification.
- Indirect Open
- An app open that is attributed to the presence of a push notification but is not measured directly, e.g., the user does not tap the notification directly. Indirect opens are a derived metric, explained more fully in Appendix: Push Influence Primer.
- ISO 8601
- International standard covering the exchange of date- and time-related data.
- master secret
application master secret
- This secret can be used as the API password for any API call, and can do
anything – guard it carefully, and never embed it in an application you
distribute to users.
- Microsoft Push Notification Service
- Named User
- A system for mapping customer-chosen IDs to channels, supporting integrations with CRMs
or other backend databases. Named users replace our earlier CRM integration tool,
- opt-in open
- An app open observed by an opt-in user.
- opt-in user
- An end user of a mobile application for which notifications are currently set to on. You may alternatively think of an opt-in user as a device that is eligible for push notifications, because an individual user, i.e., person, may have multiple devices registered with the app.
- opt-out open
- An app open observed by an opt-out user.
- opt-out user
- An end user of a mobile application for which notifications are currently set to off. You may alternatively think of an opt-out user as a device that is not eligible for push notifications, because an individual user, i.e., person, may have multiple devices registered with the app.
- push address
- A push address is the underlying device identifier that maps to a channel for message delivery.
The push address is analogous to a phone number and has the information necessary to locate and authenticate an installation of an app. Because a push address can change, Urban Airship maps push addresses to Channels, which do not change. An example of a push address is a device token, in the case of iOS.
- Push Attribution
- An event may be attributed to a notification in different ways depending on how the user interacted with
the last notification sent to the device. It can be directly or indirectly attributed to a push
notification, or be unattributed.
- Push ID
- The push ID is the ID assigned to a push at the time it is sent. Each API call will result in a unique push ID, so all
notifications that are part of a multicast push will have the same push ID. A push ID can then be used in Reporting APIs to tie
analytics back to a specific push or group of pushes.
- Push Influence
- An Influenced Open is one by an opted-in user that is either directly or indirectly attributed to a push notification and is not likely to have occurred otherwise. The term Influenced Open refers to a derived engagement metric whereas Push Influence more broadly describes Urban Airship’s proprietary attribution methodology, which explains the full impact of push notifications.
For a closer look at Push Influence, see: Appendix: Push Influence Primer.
- Push Response Rate
- The number of influenced opens over the number of total push messages sent
- Push Sends
- Total number of pushes sent to users
- Quiet Time
- Feature of the Urban Airship Push API that allows users to silence notifications during specified times
- Rich Push Response Rate
- Total number of Rich Message views over the number of Rich Messages sent
- Rich Push Sends
- Total number of Rich Pushes sent to users
- Rich Push User ID
- Unique identifier for a rich push user
- Tags can be used as ways to easily group different devices. Good
examples of tags are entertainment, for users that want breaking
entertainment news, or team:1234 for a particular online gaming team.
Each device can have multiple tags, and each tag can represent millions
- Tag Group
- A configurable namespace for organizing tags. Used for grouping together tags that originate from the
same database, e.g., CRM or loyalty.
- Unattributed Events
- An event is considered unattributed if a user opens an app other than from a push notification and
then completes the event, either having not received a notification at all, or more than 12 hours
from receipt of the last push notification.
- Unique Views
- Unique count of users who view the delivered rich message
- Coordinated Universal Time. Equivalent to GMT without daylight savings.
- universally unique identifier
- In Urban Airship’s A/B Tests, a variant is one of n messages that are being tested, along with a control group, in an A/B Test. A miniumum of 2 variants are required, and a maximum of 26 variants are allowed when running an A/B Test.
- whole day
- A whole day commences and terminates at midnight.
- Windows Notfification Service